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Axel Wright
Axel Wright

Structural Timber Design To Eurocode 5 !!LINK!!


It provides a step-by-step approach to the design of all of the commonly used timber elements and connections using solid timber, glued laminated timber or wood based structural products, and incorporates the requirements of the UK National Annex. It covers:




Structural timber design to Eurocode 5


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Featuring numerous detailed worked examples, the second edition has been thoroughly updated and includes information on the consequences of amendments and revisions to EC5 published since the first edition, and the significant additional requirements of BSI non contradictory, complimentary information document (PD 6693-1-1) relating to EC5. The new edition also includes a new section on axial stress conditions in composite sections, covering combined axial and bending stress conditions and reference to the major revisions to the design procedure for glued laminated timber.


Jack Porteous is a consulting engineer specialising in timber engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer, Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers and Member of the Institution of Structural Engineers. He is a member of the BSI committee B/525/5, which is responsible for the structural use of timber in the UK and for the production of UK input to EN 1995-1-1. He is a member of the editorial advisory panel of the ICE publication, Construction Materials and a visiting scholar and lecturer in timber engineering at Edinburgh Napier University.


In the Eurocode series of European standards (EN) related to construction, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures (abbreviated EN 1995 or, informally, EC 5) describes how to design buildings and civil engineering works in timber, using the limit state design philosophy. It was approved by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) on 16 April 2004. It applies for civil engineering works from solid timber, sawn, planned or in pole form, glued laminated timber or wood-based structural products, (e.g. LVL) or wood-based panels jointed together with adhesives or mechanical fasteners and is divided into the following parts.


EN 1995-1-2 deals with the design of timber structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1995-1-1 and EN 1991-1-2:2002. EN 1995-1-2 only identifies differences from, or supplements normal temperature design and deals only with passive methods of fire protection. Active methods are not covered.


EN 1995-2 gives general design rules for the structural parts of bridges, i.e. structural members of importance for the reliability of the whole bridge or major parts of it, made of timber or other wood-based materials, either singly or compositely with concrete, steel or other materials.


Various design approaches for establishing the resistance of connections in cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures have been developed and adopted in timber design standards worldwide. Although the fundamental principles are similar, the new design provisions for CLT connections have been aligned in some standards with the existing design philosophy and format adopted for sawn timber and glulam using traditional fasteners such as dowels, nails, and wood screws for consistency and simplicity, in the other standards, alternate approaches have been developed. This article presents a snap shot of the various design approaches for connections in CLT adopted in Europe, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. The intent is for the reader to have a better knowledge of the underpinning assumptions, principles, and the adopted design rules in each of these standards.


There was some discussion previously (I think in 2001) on this topic. Eurocodes are now obligatory in European civil / structural engineering. There is a publication 'Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5' by Jack Porteous and Abdy Kermani, which includes many MathCad examples (available on disc for a small fee, after purchase of the book). Does anyone know of any other sources of Eurocode compliant design files, particularly for materials other than timber?


The 10 Eurocodes deal with the structural design of buildings using different materials and include EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design and EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures which cover the principals of structural design and the loads acting upon these structures. It covers mechanical resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of timber structures. Requirements such as thermal or sound insulation are not considered.


OSB Structural I on an APA trademark indicates that the OSB structural-panel meets the requirements of a Performance Rated panel. This delivers superior design capacity for these panels over OSB Rated Sheathing and Sturd-I-Floor. Also see Comparison of Superior Design Capacities for OSB Structural I Sheathing with OSB Rated Sheathing.


This book provides step-by-step guidance to the design of all of the most commonly used timber elements and connections using solid timber, glued laminated timber, or wood based structural products. Featuring numerous worked examples and plenty of new material, this fully updated edition incorporates information on the consequences of amendments and revisions to EC5 published since the first edition, as well as the additional requirements of BSI non contradictory, complimentary information document (PD 6693-1-1) relating to EC5. A new section on axial stress conditions in composite sections is also included.


Abdy Kermani is the Professor of Timber Engineering and Director of the UK's Centre for Timber Engineering at Edinburgh Napier University. He is a Chartered Engineer, Fellow of the Institution of Structural Engineers and Fellow of the Institute of Wood Science. He has served on the organising committees and editorial technical advisory boards of international journals and conferences on timber engineering and the innovative use of construction materials. He is the appointed principal consultant to several UK and European structural and timber engineering firms and manufacturing industries.


Dowel-type fasteners are one of the most used type of connections in timber joints. Its design follows the equations included in the Eurocode 5. The problem with these equations is that they do not adequately contemplate the resistive capacity increase of these joints, when using configurations which provoke the so-called rope effect. This effect appears when using threaded surface dowels instead of flat surface dowels, expansion kits or nut-washer fixings at the end of the dowel. The standards consider this increase through a constant value, which is a poor approximation, because it is clearly variable, depending on the joint displacement and because is much bigger, especially when using nut-washer fixings. It is also very important because of the rope effect trigger interesting mechanisms that avoids fragile failures without warning of the joints. For these reasons, it is essential to know how these configurations work, how they help the joint to resist the external loads and how much is the increase resistance capacity in relationship with the joint displacement. The methods used to address these issues consisted of a campaign of experimental tests using actual size specimens with flat surface dowels, threaded surface dowels and dowels with washer-nut fixings at their ends. The resistance capacity results obtained in all the cases has been compared with the values that will come using the equations in the standards. After the tests the specimens were cut to analyze the timber crushings, their widths, the positions and level of plasticizations suffer in the steel dowels and in the washer-nut fixings and the angle formed in the dowel plastic hinges. With all this information the failure mode suffered by the joints has been identified and compared with the ones that the standards predict. The results for the size materials and types of joints studied shows that the crush width average values go from 20 mm with flat surface dowels, to 24 mm in threaded to 32 mm in threaded with washer-nut fixings. The rope effect force/displacement goes from 100 N/m in threaded surface dowels to 500 N/m in threaded with washer-nut fixings. Finally, the load capacities are on average 290% higher those indicated in the standard. The main conclusion is that the rope effect force should be considered in the standards in more detail as a function of multiple variables, especially the displacement of the joint.


The authors demonstrated that the existing design rules did not take into account the strengthening effect of toothed plates on the connection load-carrying capacity, and they suggested the use of a coefficient equal to 1.24 to better characterise the load-carrying capacity of aluminium-timber screwed connections reinforced with toothed-plate connectors.


Design of flexural members such as timber beams principally involves consideration of the effects of actions such as bending, deflection, vibration, lateral buckling, shear, and bearing. The process of design of such structures is described in Eurocode 5 (EN 1995-1-1:2004), and a design example is shown in this article.


The idea of the structural design concept may be explained by an analogy to a cabinet rack filled with drawers (Abrahamsen and Malo 2014). Here, the cabinet rack is formed by large glulam trusses, and the drawers consist of prefabricated residential modules. The glulam truss work has close resemblance to the design concepts used in modern timber bridge structures.


The structural timber is with few exceptions covered behind either glass or metal sheeting. This protects the timber from rain and sun, increases durability and reduces maintenance. Climate class 1 (service class 1) is used for members that are indoors, and climate class 2 is used for members that are on the cold side of the external walls.


In the structural model, the properties stated for glulam strength classes GL30c and GL30 h according to EN 14080:2013 (CEN 14080 2013) are used. The CLT specifications have bending strength fmk = 24 MPa, and properties similar to C24 structural timber. The majority of the glulam is made out of untreated Norway spruce. Glulam that can be exposed to weathering is made of copper-treated lamellas from Nordic pine. Structural timber in the building modules and CLT is produced from Norway spruce. 041b061a72


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