Benday Process UPD
The Ben Day process is a printing and photoengraving technique for producing areas of gray or (with four-color printing) various colors by using fine patterns of ink on the paper. It was developed in 1879 by illustrator and printer Benjamin Henry Day Jr. (son of 19th-century publisher Benjamin Henry Day). The process is commonly described in terms of Ben Day dots, but other shapes can be used, such as parallel lines or textures.
The process differs from the halftone dots, which can vary continuously in size to produce gradations of shading or color, and are commonly produced from photographs. Ben Day dots are of equal size and distribution across a specific area, and are commonly applied to line art or graphic designs. To apply the dots, the artist would cut the appropriate shapes from transparent overlay sheets, which were available in a wide variety of dot size and distribution, to provide a range of tones to use. When photographically reproduced as a line cut for letterpress printing, the areas of Ben Day overlay provided the effect of tonal shading to the printing plate.
In book illustration, the woodcut peaked before the 1700s. It was superseded by higher quality techniques of engraving and etching on metal. These intaglio methods needed a very different type of printing, and separate presses from text, so illustrations of this kind took up full pages, added in to books or periodicals during the binding process.
In 1893, the Illustrated London News company launched a new weekly, The Sketch, which is often cited as the first periodical to print all its illustrations using the photoengraving process. (See Beegan, note 8) However La Vie Moderne, launched in Paris in 1879 by a consortium including Charles Gillot properly deserves this credit.
In printmaking, a process using screens of various dot patterns to mechanically produce shading effects. This process was invented by Benjamin Day (1839-1916). Roy Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997) included benday as one of the elements in his paintings signifying Pop Art qualities.Examples: Roy Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997), Vicki, 1964, enamel on steel, 42 x 42 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.The commercial use of benday has become more and more rare with the rise of digital imaging.
The Benday dot printing process is named after Benjamin Day Jr., and is similar to pointalism. Depending on the effect, color and optical illusion needed, small colored dots are closely spaced, widely spaced or overlapping. Pulp comic books of the 1950s and 1960s used Ben-Day dots in the four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) to inexpensively create shading and secondary colors such as green, purple, orange and flesh tones. Ben-Day dots differ from halftone dots in that the Ben-Day dots are always of equal size and distribution in a specific area.
One way to think about the art in the 4CP Four Color Process gallery is as an examination of this difference. It tries to minimize what we think of as the content of comic books, while radically magnifying the four-color process itself. At their original size all the images in the gallery would cover a few square feet of printed comic book space. Blown up to monumental proportions, many of these minute fragments could fill a two-page spread.
Crucially, this perforated universe and molecular level of detail are unintended and have no intrinsic relationship to the illustrative content of comic books. Four-color process delivers surplus, independent information, a kind of visual monosodium glutamate that makes the comic book panel taste deeper.
The images in the 4CP gallery attempt to isolate and exploit the unpredictable energies of the four-color process. We seek panels within panels, where a balance can be struck between motion and stillness, uncontrolled radiation and a compositional containment field. Cut free from context and the intrusion of elbows and speech balloons, the comic book subconscious becomes the speaking subject.
Ben-Day pattern Named after its creator, Benjamin Day, the Ben-Day Dot pattern was a way to apply shading to images. According to Wikipedia, "1950s and 1960s pulp comic books used Ben-Day dots in the four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) to inexpensively create shading and secondary colors such as green, purple, orange and flesh tones." So the evenly spaced Ben-Day Dot pattern (which is different from halftone dots in that they're all the same size and spacing and always round) is a hallmark of the comic-book style. Obviously, Lichtenstein (above), who pillaged the visual vocabulary of pop culture, imitated a Ben-Day Dot pattern in his paintings. Here's an image of the process of transferring lettering by the same method as Ben-Day Dots. The pattern would be printed on a sheet of plastic. Once dry it could be transferred by turning ove the sheet and burnishing the ink onto a piece of paper. Koala Ranch Wine
(A simplified explanation and description of Benday dots is included in the picture description pages. This technical explanation is to give volunteers a deeper understanding of the process and its history.)
Depending on the effect, color, and optical illusion needed, small colored dots are closely spaced, widely spaced, or overlapping. Magenta dots, for example, are widely spaced to create pink. The Ben-Day Process is used in screenprinting as a graphic alternative to using a halftone tint. Screenprinters also use Ben-Day dots in the four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) to inexpensively create shading and secondary colors such as green, purple, orange, and flesh tones on point-of-purchase, posters, and T-shirts.
The invention disclosed by the Baker patent relates to a process for preparing so-called "camera copy" to be used for lithography, photoengraving, rotogravure offset press, and like work. The process involves, first, photographing lines, screen, stippling, dots or the like, referred to in the briefs as "Ben Day" effects, and making a positive print from the negative on "silver print paper" which is fixed in a bath of hyposulphate of soda. The print is then "blanched" out, that is, made invisible to the eye or to the camera, by the application of a saturated solution of bichloride of mercury. The paper thus prepared is to be used for a drawing by an artist. After the drawing is made such portion or portions of the blanched print of Ben Day effects as are desired to be shown in the finished drawing are redeveloped by the application of a pure caustic solution. The drawing with the Ben Day effects thus added is then complete and ready for photographic reproduction.
Claims 1, 2, 6, and 8 of the patent in suit cover methods or processes of making the *371 "camera copy" described above. Claims 3 and 4 cover the product "camera copy." Claim 5 covers the product called a "medium," which is the photographic print of the Ben Day effects after the print has been blanched and made invisible but before the artist's drawing has been made thereon. Claim 7 covers the method of making the "medium" described in claim 5.
Appellant contends that the District Court erred in finding that the patent was valid. It is contended that appellee Baker was not the original inventor of the process, or product, claimed in his patent; that the process was previously known and used by others in this country and was in public use and on sale for more than two years prior to the date of application for the Baker patent in suit. Rev.Stat. 4886, as amended by Act March 3, 1897, 1, 35 U. S.C.A. 31. The prior discovery relied upon by appellant was that by Olin M. Root and Roland J. Scott who used a method as early as 1924 for producing photographic copy similar to appellant's. Application for the Baker patent was filed August 25, 1927. It also appears that there was a sale of paper or "medium" embodying the Root and Scott process before the filing of such application. It is claimed by appellees that there must be a public use or knowledge of the invention before there can be anticipation, and that there was not sufficient evidence of such a use or knowledge in regard to the Scott-Root application. In view of the use of the Scott-Root process by the inventors thereof, and in view of the evidence of sales of their product, the Scott-Root process would anticipate the Baker invention if it involved identical or equivalent steps. Milburn Co. v. Davis-Bournonville Co., 270 U.S. 390, 46 S. Ct. 324, 70 L. Ed. 651; see Walker on Patents, 6th Ed., pp. 122, 123, 97, 98, p. 137, 110; Smith v. Hall, 301 U.S. 216, 57 S. Ct. 711, 81 L. Ed. 1049.
Did the Scott-Root invention involve the same process as is set out in the Baker patent? In the Scott-Root process a print was made of Ben Day effects by first photographing such effects and printing the same on "developing-out" paper by the usual photographic process. The image developed on the print was then "practically bleached out" as follows: The print was dipped in a solution of three parts of potassium iodide to one part of resublimated iodine until the paper assumed a dark brown color. It was then immersed in a bath containing sodium bisulphite until the brown "stain" left the paper. After washing and drying it was ready as a "medium" for the artist's drawing. After the drawing was made the Ben Day effects were redeveloped in areas where wanted by a developing solution such as sodium sulphide or barium sulphide. After this, it was necessary to treat the print to a bath composed of sodium hyposulphite, acidulated with acetic acid, known as the acid hypo bath, and to rinse and to dry it, because the bleaching agents used in the process did not render the undeveloped Ben Day effects invisible to a wet plate which is used by almost all photo engravers to photograph the prints for commercial use. By the use of the acid hypo bath the undeveloped portion of the Ben Day pattern was dissolved out of the paper. 041b061a72